Diabetes mellitus in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Pergolini, I., Schorn, S., Jager, C., Goss, R., Novotny, A., Friess, H., Ceyhan, G. O., and Demir, I. E. (2021). Surgery 169, 411-418


Background: Our current knowledge of diabetes mellitus in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is very limited and its prevalence and predictive value for malignant transformation are not clear. This study sought to systematically review the literature to define the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and to evaluate the association of diabetes mellitus with the progression to high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer.

Methods: A PubMed/Medline systematic search was performed to identify studies reporting data on preoperative diabetes mellitus in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Articles meeting the predefined inclusion criteria were analyzed and a meta-analysis was performed. The study was preregistered (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020153581).

Results: From the initially detected 827 studies, 27 studies including resected patients with histologically confirmed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm were included. The global prevalence of preoperative diabetes mellitus was 25% (1,112 of 4,412); whereas new-onset/worsening diabetes mellitus was reported in 6% of patients (68 of 1,202). The meta-analysis revealed that patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus had an increased risk of harboring a main pancreatic duct involvement (risk ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.69, P < .001), high-grade dysplasia (risk ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.59, P = .04), and invasive cancer (risk ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.33-1.95, P < .001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is high, and diabetic patients demonstrate an increased risk of a more aggressive disease. Therefore, diabetes mellitus should be increasingly considered in the stratification of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Further investigations to determine the mechanisms behind the association with progression should be carried out.